Tuesday, March 10, 2020
The Pianist and World War II essays The film The Pianist (2002) Roman Polanski is an adaptation of the memoirs of Wladyslaw Szpilman a Jewish pianist who lived through the Nazi occupation of Poland during WWII. According to the sources, Roman Polanski supplemented the story with a few anecdotal events that had occurred in his life during WWII as a boy. (INMB, NP) The film is characteristic of other period films of WWII and especially those of the Jewish experience. Polanski frequently tried to stay within the confines of the real experience and the real words of Szpilmam who apparently frequently stated when witnessing particularly adamant German Nazi sympathizers in action, The all want to be better Nazis that Hitler. The story line of the film is the life of one Jewish family during WWII in Warsaw Poland. The family began the war rather well off with Wlad working as a rather famous pianist for a radio station and other unknown income. Yet, as the war moved on and restrictions on Jews became fiercer the situation dimmed considerably as did the situation for all Jews. Wlad hoped to help the cause of Jewish liberation but was often stymied by the fact that he was to well known, a scene late in the film when he goes to a resistant office in the ghetto tells of this frustration. When the Warsaw Ghetto is evacuated mostly to the concentration camps the Wlad tries to stay and lives off scavenged food from bombed out buildings until he was befriended by a German officer who heard him play the piano and gave him food to survive. The feelings and occurrence that are depicted in the film are poignant as the family declines financially, from a relatively wealthy and secure state, discussing where to hide their remaining cash when leaving their home to allow Germans to search or seize it and then later after all Jews have been financially stifled by the restrictive rulings of the Warsaw District President they discuss what they can buy for...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Service in the restaurant industry - Research Paper Example This essay examines service in the restaurant industry through the consideration of a variety of inputs. As noted above the restaurant experience begins as soon as an individual walks into the restaurant, as such it is highly important for a restaurant to consider service from these very early stages. For most restaurants this begins with having a successful host or hostess. There are a number of considerations that go into successful service within this portion of the house. As restaurant service is contingent on being prompt effective efficiency behind the scenes must also be considered. Still, in terms of immediate impressions it is necessary for the host or hostess to have a clean-cut appearance and demeanor. Oftentimes restaurants will search for hostesses with a particular-look or attitude as it immediately signals to the customer the culture and attitude they will be treated with throughout their visit. Additionally there are a variety of other means by which the host or hostess can contribute to overriding service. One of the central aspects of the hostess job is greeting the c ustomer directly. By engaging directly with the customer when they walk into the restaurant the host enacts a connection that should be carried through until the customers finish their meal and exit the restaurant. After greeting the customer it is essential they discern their needs and inform them if there is going to be a potential wait; in the case there is no wait the host or hostess must bring the customer promptly to their table. While such considerations constitute the most outward elements of service, as noted earlier it is also the hostÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to ensure that things behind the scenes are taken care of. Perhaps most central to his or her role in these regards is keeping in contact with each serverÃ¢â¬â¢s stations. In the restaurant industry each server is
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Past and present and fuuture technologies in his field of study or his interest - Essay Example Students who study science and engineering are supposed to have more interest in the history of their main subject of study. In terms of the evolution of computers, the same capital has always been used but fresh and creative ideas over the years have allowed the technology to become better than the ones which were already being used. This paper will consider the development and improvement of computers over the years all the way to the present and will continue to predict what the computers are likely to do in the in the coming years. This paper should give a proper description of the improvement of computers together with the progress that have been seen it their technology. It is obvious that computers have become important in all the countries of the world even though the success they have achieved did not come overnight. The capabilities and abilities of computers have undergone a lot of improvement since they were invented with numerous advancements on a regular basis (Thyagarajan, Chelvi & Rangaswamy, 2000). This essay will study the progress that has been made in terms of computers, the way that they exist today as well as try to try to predict what they will be and the abilities they might have in the days to come. The initial function associated with computers, which was computing, was also important in coming up with their name as computing involves accepting inputs and creating outputs. During the Second World War, computing assisted physicists to develop the first ever atomic bomb as well as intelligence officers to understand the message in communications that were being sent by enemy soldiers. Regardless of the fact that these activities could have been done without the help of computers, they made the entire processes easy therefore decreasing the chances of human errors simply through provision of instruction making the activities undertaken efficient and effective. Even though the first computer had huge
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Social Relationships Essay The way in which we shop, and the items, products or services we buy reflect a great deal about modern western society. We define ourselves by the job we do, the house we live in, the things we own and the way we look. Since the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s mass consumer societies characterised by bigger credit facilities, more consumer choice and a central role for consumption in every day life have flourished in the western world (Dittmar, 2008). In these societies consumer goods play a strong role: Ã¢â¬Ëwe value and buy them as a means of regulating emotions and gaining social status and as ways of acquiring or expressing identity and aspiring to an Ã¢â¬â¢idealÃ¢â¬â¢ selfÃ¢â¬â¢ (Dittmar 1992, 2004). It is proposed that the mass society in which we live arose from the Ã¢â¬Ëdisruptive consequences of industrialisation and urbanisationÃ¢â¬ ¦(which) have destabilised and eroded the societies and values which previously held them togetherÃ¢â¬â¢ (Strinati, 2004, p5). This implicates urbanisation in the decline in religion and tightly knit village communities resulting in Ã¢â¬ËatomisationÃ¢â¬â¢; dissolving peoples relations to one resembling atoms in a chemical compound. This suggests in turn that these people are lacking in Ã¢â¬Ëmeaningful or morally coherent relationshipsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Strinati, 2004, p6). Mass society theory also suggests that there are fewer and fewer institutions which people can turn to so that they can find their identity and morally appropriate values which to live by. The moral benchmarks set up by religion and community have been kicked out from underneath the public by globalisation and technical advances, it is consumerism that has filled the void. Consumerism, like all ideologies, must be internalised to be effective, its values must become that of the individual. One of the many ways in which the ideology of consumerism is internalised is through advertising and exposure to the mass media. Our exposure to mass media has increased dramatically over recent years and starts at a very young age. In her book Ã¢â¬ËBorn to BuyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Schor J 2004), Juliet Schor highlights the deliberate commercialisation of children by the media in order to turn them into materialist and buyer. The purpose of this is two fold, children may either buy the product themselves or ask their parents for it, and will then grow up to be a materialist. Items are advertised as must haves for any cool kid, that those without this product are a loser. Advertisers study children in great depth to see how to make them as susceptible as possible to their adverts; using questionnaires, child psychology, in depth interviews, observational research and even MRI scanning of the brain itself. Adverts aim to sell a specific product, making the child think Ã¢â¬Ëbuying/having this product will make me happy/cool/pretty ectÃ¢â¬â¢. If this behaviour becomes normative a born to buy consumer is created. The success of the commercialisation of the youth is staggering: more than half of nine to fourteen year olds in a large study in America agreed that Ã¢â¬Ëwhen you grow up, the more money you have, the happier you areÃ¢â¬â¢ and over a third Ã¢â¬Ëreally like kids that have very special games or clothesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Schor J 2004 p37). For the culture of consumerism to exist, it must be supported by individual human beings who follow the beliefs and practices of that culture. It also follows that in a culture of consumption individuals are exposed to enormous pressure to conform to the beliefs and practices of this culture (Kasser et al 2003). The culture of consumption must therefore be appealing to at least some individuals Ã¢â¬â it must offer them something. Kasser et al believe that the development of a strong materialistic value orientation (MVO their definition of the culture of consumptions constellation of aims, beliefs, goals and behaviours) arises because Ã¢â¬Ëexperiences that undermine the satisfaction of psychological needs can cause individuals to orient toward materialism as one type of compensatory strategy intended to countermand the distressing effects of feeling of insecurityÃ¢â¬â¢ (Kasser et al 2003 pg13). The paper goes on to claim that people develop a strong MVO to Ã¢â¬Ëcompensate for worries and doubts about their self-worth, their ability to cope effectively with challenges, and their safety in a relatively unpredictable worldÃ¢â¬â¢ (Kasser et al 2003 pg14). This, combined with the mass society theory could indicate that consumerism is a replacement for the security and self-assurance once offered by religion and community, institutions and ideologies that have been eroded by globalisation, scientific and technological advancement and modern political movements. This rise in retail therapy is encouraged by modern institutions that directly benefit rom buying; mugs saying Ã¢â¬Ëkeep calm, go shoppingÃ¢â¬â¢ objectifies the message the mass media wish to perpetuate. Cultural and historical changes have clearly aided the rise of the culture of consumption. Firstly, greater expendable income brought about by the low cost of keeping oneself and family alive and the minimum wage have allowed even poor families to own flat screen TVÃ¢â¬â¢s. Since the industrial revolution, the production line and the division of labour people also have more free time in which to spend money. For women, it is arguable that post feminism has been instrumental in creating the allure of things. Feminist values of equality coupled with post-feminist ideals of claiming power over men through sexuality and looks means it is acceptable for woman to be in a high powered job, have an opinion, rule a household and be a sexual predator but only if she is wearing Gucci shoes and is completely hairless from the temples down. Success for the modern woman goes hand in hand with the ability to shop. It is argued that materialism arises from insecurity; as Kasser et al surmise Ã¢â¬Ëperhaps materialistic pursuits have been evolutionarily ingrained within humans as a way to feel more secure and safe (e. g. Hungry? Get food. Being attacked? Grab and club)Ã¢â¬â¢ (Kasser et al 2003 pg16). This suggests that the allure of things originally arose because we needed the Ã¢â¬ËthingÃ¢â¬â¢ in question. This is definitely not the case nowadays; the reasons to have things have changed. We buy things to belong, to compete, to show others we are rich or loved, we buy things because they are there or even because a certain celebrity endorsed or owns the product. Shopping has even become a leisure and lifestyle activity where shopping malls become a place for socialising (Underhill 2004). As well as changing the reasons we shop the culture of consumption has also driven changes in the practice of shopping. Films can now be rented or bought from ones TV set, internet ordering and delivery is now a service offered by almost every shop. This feeds the culture of consumption and the power offered by advertising as there is no need to leave the house, an advert can pop up whilst you are checking your emails and a few clicks later an item you had never even heard of before is being delivered to your door the next day. The removal of this physical aspect of shopping makes it Ã¢â¬Ëvery easy to spend a lotÃ¢â¬ ¦(it) detaches you from a sense of actually spending moneyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Dittmar et al 2004 pg429). If we accept that we live in a culture of consumption we must give some thought to the potential risks of such an ideology. Kasser and Ryan (2001) showed that people who rate extrinsic materialistic values as high compared to others such as self-acceptance or community feeling have a lower quality of life. More directly Cohen and Cohen (1996) discovered that adolescents who admire others because of their possessions are at an increased risk for personality disorders. While these harmful effects are possible causes, not results of materialism, it is still very likely to be a link between them. Kasser et al suggest that Ã¢â¬Ëpeople experiencing higher levels of insecurity may be more susceptible to the influence of environmental messages concerning the benefits of acquisitiveness, which may in turn make them feel increasingly insecure, and so on in a vicious cycleÃ¢â¬â¢ (Kasser et al 2003 pg17). Potential threats of the consumer culture have been highlighted in modern fiction. In the film Ã¢â¬ËFight ClubÃ¢â¬â¢ a man who is a Ã¢â¬Ëslave to the IKEA nesting instinctÃ¢â¬â¢ (Fight Club 1999) develops insomnia and then multiple personalities which rebel against the consumer society and attempts to bring it to its knees. The converts to this anti-consumer way of thinking are told You are not your job. You are not how much you have in the bank. You are not the contents of your wallet. You are not your fucking Khakis. You are not a beautiful and unique snowflake. You are the all-singing, all-dancing crap of the world. (Fight Club 1999). The film predicts that when people realise that they have been conned into believing that Ã¢â¬ËthingsÃ¢â¬â¢ make them happy and that they would all become rich and famous there will be a uprising against the ideology (Fight Club 1999). There are other, more directly harmful effects of the culture of consumption which are caused by a change in the Ã¢â¬ËthingsÃ¢â¬â¢ it is possible to buy. With advancements in cosmetic surgery it has become possible to buy thinness through liposuction, to buy a larger bust and buy fuller lips, it is now becoming inexcusable to be ugly. Levine and Murnen (2009) believe that the mass media is instrumental in driving this process in order to profit from the advertisement potential of making people believe that Ã¢â¬ËowningÃ¢â¬â¢ the perfect body is Ã¢â¬Ëa central determinant of ones identity (Levine and Murnen 2009). Aside from the bvious dangers of surgery further risks of eating disorders and low self-esteem are risks inherent in an ideology where the body becomes a modifiable product. This issue is of such concern that in 2000 the British medical association reported that there Ã¢â¬Ëis a great deal of theorising and media criticism available but far too little systematic researchÃ¢â¬â¢ (BMA 2000) in regards to the effect of the media on female body image perspectives and a summit in June 2000 the British government confirmed both general concern about self-starvation and the need for more research into the role of the media. This is likely caused or at least aggravated by the idea that buying certain beauty products, diet plans or advice from magazines will help one obtain the Ã¢â¬Ëideal bodyÃ¢â¬â¢. High street shops also perpetuate the idea as larger cloth sizes are sectioned off or even in a different shop entirely (for example Evans and Bravissimo). The more Ã¢â¬ËfashionableÃ¢â¬â¢ the shop the smaller the size available. Shops such as Miss Selfridge have sizes as low as a 4 in their standard adult section but go no higher than a size 16. New clothes are modelled by women no more than a size 4 and size 12 is described as Ã¢â¬ËcurvyÃ¢â¬â¢. This suggests that belonging to the culture of consumption is increasingly requiring a thin and beautiful body. The practice of shopping objectifies many aspects of the culture of consumption in which we live. The Culture of consumption arose with little resistance as it was replacing the supporting institutions of community and religion which had been eroded by the mass society. The changes in shopping behaviour, the reasons why people shop, the things they buy in the culture of consumption are potential cause for concern. Nowadays consumerism has become internalised due to exposure to mass media advertising from an early age. This has created a materialistic society where people believe that objects help them find and define themselves by material things and other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of them. Nowadays people have more expendable income. They no longer buy things in which they need they buy things they want. People buy things to show off. They like and admire people for Ã¢â¬ËthingsÃ¢â¬â¢ they own and it is these people who are more at risk of personality disorders (Cohen and Cohen 1996). Shopping nowadays is becoming more and more than simply shopping for physical objects. With the rise in both minor and major cosmetic surgeries more and more people are trying to acquire nonphysical things such as Ã¢â¬ËbeautyÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËthinnessÃ¢â¬â¢. People will always want to belong to something, religion, community, a football team or nation. Outsiders on an evolutionary basis did not have the protection of the pack and were more at risk meaning we are evolved to conform. However all ideologies carry risks and global consumerism may not be the worst. Unlike other some other ideologies it does not require the overthrow of governments or the enslaving or murder of people. The security and self-assurance provided by owning things is useful for people in the western world following the rapid collapse of institutional religion and community in the 20th century. There do however need to be checks on the rampant and aggressive push of consumption and the allure of things which we are experiencing nowadays, people need to not be brainwashed into thinking that the Ã¢â¬ËthingsÃ¢â¬â¢ are how we define ourselves and make ourselves happy.
Monday, January 20, 2020
From Robert Frost's Mending Wall to Pink Floyd's Another Brick in the Wall, humankind erects and maintains real and symbolic barriers to protect and defend opposing stances, beliefs and territories. Although each "wall" is different they serve the same purpose and both Frost and Floyd oppose them. Robert Frost's Mending Wall is a very popular poem. This poem consists of two characters: the narrator and his neighbor. In this poem the two neighbors are mending a stone wall that separates their property. The wall mending has been a pastime of the neighbors for many years and occurs every spring. Over the winter the wall has fallen victim to both hunters and the frozen ground and, therefore, contains gaps that must be filled.In the poem the narrator questions the sense of even mending the wall . He concludes that neither of the farms contain animals, only trees, which would be enough of a boundary. There is no physical need for the wall, so why go through the trouble of fixing it every year for no apparent reason. Although the narrator is right the ignorant neighbor insists that they mend the wall by saying "Good fences make good neighbors."(Frost) The neighbor repeats this saying although he doesn't know why the wall is necessary nor does he know why it will make them better neighbors . Frost is criticizing the ignorance of the neighbor here. Mending Wall, although it doesn't appear it on the surface, almost parallels to a popular Pink Floyd song, Another Brick in the Wall. The speakers of the song are students and the poem is directed towards teachers. In this song, as in Mending Wall, a barrier is discussed, but this time it is a phsycological barrier instead of a physical one. This barrier has been put up by society and is being built up by the teachers. The students are calling out against this building up of the wall. As it is stated in the song: "All in all you're(teachers) just another brick in the wall."(Floyd) This barrier being put up is restraining the students' freedom of thought, a process that has gone on and become reinforced over a long period of time. Floyd has realized this barrier and is calling out against it as he says:"We don't need no thought control."(Floyd)The barrier put up by education is just as unnecessary to Floyd as the stone wall is to Frost.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The caused and effects of Lehman Brothers bankruptcy. ? Lehman Brothers was founded in 1850 and it is a diversified investment bank provided financial services for global companies, institutions, governments and investors. Lehman Brothers was one of the most powerful stock and bond underwriters and dealers in the world, and it also as the fourth largest investment bank in the United States before. Because of widely recognized to LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s operational capacity, the company had many world-renowned companies as its customer base such as Dell, Fujitsu, IBM, Intel, Philip Morris, Shell and Wal-Mart .Lehman Brothers had faced four collapses before it bankruptcy, one was the stock market crash of 1929, second it had interest rate loss of $6. 7 million in 1973, and then because of LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s internal conflict led to be merger and acquisitions by American Express in 1984, and last one was shortage of funds in 1994. Richard Fuld as LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO from 1993, he led to Lehman Brothers grow up and avoid those four collapses. Even Lehman Brothers was turned the corner in these four collapses; it still declared bankruptcy as a result of $613 billion total debt in 2008 .Lehman Brothers went to collapse make lots of impacts on financial markets, the most important reason caused Lehman bankruptcy is under the subprime mortgage crisis and complex financial markets. Before the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007, the U. S. real estate market over the leveraged financing and oil price was increase rapidly, many people in the excessive lending. However, Lehman Brothers had continued business of mortgage bond until the outbreak of subprime mortgage crisis in 2006, LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s asset management, economic services, mergers and securities underwriting business accounted for Lehman's operating income of 40% .In 2008, because the subprime mortgage crisis spread to Lehman Brothers, the company suffered a serious hit from the financial losses and caused that stock p rice fell to only a few dollars. In September 2008, the Lehman BrotherÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO Dick Fuld had experienced the most painful financial crisis in the history of the United States and the company went bankrupt. The Lehman Brothers which had experienced 158 years history toward to end . Also, the collapse of Lehman Brothers brought an unprecedented shock wave for financial market and investment banking. The terrorist attack on 2001, September 11 led to conomic downturn and the stock market depressed, the Federal Reserve decided to continue kept low interest rate to ensure the most of enterprises and publics can achieve loans easier . Due to the public would had more money to be used for mortgages and other spending, Lehman Brother seized the opportunity to develop its business so that LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s profits growth quickly in the second half of 2002. Lehman BrothersÃ¢â¬â¢ sales revenue of subprime mortgage raised double of profits in both years 2004 and 2005 . And LehmanÃ¢ â¬â¢s present value of subprime mortgage CDO (collateralized debt obligations) investment reached up to $80 billion .Lehman Brothers issued two mortgage bonds companies in the United States are BNC and Aurora. These two branches of mortgage bonds and purchased from other companies constituted the CDO package. The worth of CDO could be about hundreds of millions and even billions of dollars to divide for sale to investors around the world. The interest rate of CDO is much higher than the national bonds in the United States and other investments, so Lehman Brother took advantage of sale these bonds to gained large profits. After that, the public began to worried more about future develop of CDOs from Lehman Brothers and other companies.Then, Lehman Brothers shut down one of the mortgage bonds company BNC because of huge losses and this caused the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s panic of the credit crunch. The public began to suffer a serious mortgage crisis . As a result, the capital losses a nd lack of credit to the banking system, so that no banks willing to lend money unless borrower to pay high interest rate. The banks which involved in this business are worried about losing their money. However, Lehman Brother was still announced good quarterly results even had problems and other investment banks (e. g.JP Morgan Chase, Citibank) had losses. In January of 2008, Lehman Brother reported their earnings shown that highest income up to $4 billion and their capital just $30 billion . At that time their stock price up to $65, but eight months later the price fell to $4 with more than $600 billion debt. Since 2008, LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s stock price had fallen by 60%. Besides, Lehman Brothers had alternative assets about $40 billion such as hedge funds, private equity funds and real estate funds. In May, Lehman Brothers reported that losses in hedge funds but then said they are recovered .Because of LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s total debt $613 billion, and then the negotiation with Barcl ays Bank and Bank of America about take over Lehman Brothers was failed on September 14. While at the same time the investment banks gave up to help Lehman Brothers, LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s market value dropped dramatically, these fact forced Lehman Brothers to filed for bankruptcy protection from the U. S. Bankruptcy Court in Manhattan on September 15, 2008 . After filed for bankruptcy, Lehman Brothers exchanged trading at the OTC (Over the Counter) market only $0. 05 per share.Lehman exercised put option to ensure holders could get profit when they buy the stocks as $0. 05 per share and sell for strike price . When the news of the fourth largest bank Lehman Brothers went bankrupt came out, the dollar currency and the U. S. stock index futures was declined at the same time, this indicated that the New York stock market crash in the open market. In order to prevent the open market crash of Lehman Brothers, the U. S. Treasury and the Federal Reserve System made great effort on three d ays to save markets. The investment bank Barclays and Bank of America exited.The Britain's third largest bank Barclays decided to drop out after the government refused to provide financial guarantees to save Lehman Brothers. Then, the bank of America all announced exit the action. Because the government refused to help and no other support, Lehman Brothers final decided to file for bankruptcy protection caused by suffered serious financial crisis. As we can see, there are many factors caused bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, such as market changes and instability led to systematic risks, the internal problems and risks from Lehman Brothers.The internal problem is one of the most important factors to cause it collapse. As the fourth largest investment bank in the United States, Lehman Brothers more focused on the traditional investment business such as underwriting securities, mergers and acquisitions for a long term. With the rapid development of financial derivatives and fixed inco me products trading, Lehman Brothers strived to expand these businesses and achieved great success. The real estate and credit business develop rapidly after 2000, Lehman Brothers began to involve in these business as other banks .However, Lehman Brothers expanded too fast and even in the decline of real estate market in 2007, the commercial real estate bonds of Lehman Brothers still grown quickly. Thus, the rapid growth created more systematic risks for Lehman Brothers. In addition, Lehman Brothers was different from other investment banks like JP Morgan Chase, Bank of America because Lehman had less own capital and its capital adequacy ratio is too low . In order to collected funds to expand business, Lehman had to rely on the bond market and bank lending market.The greater is the leverage ratio when the company borrowing more money from banks, but it has less equity capital. The profit is amplified by the leverage ratio when it makes money, but the loss is enlarging with th e leverage ratio when the company has loss. The lack of funds would be increase the risks for the company when it loss. Moreover, to analyzed the problem of Lehman BrothersÃ¢â¬â¢ collapse, it also should be related with the U. S. subprime mortgage crisis and recent financial turmoil intensified from the summer of 2007. In addition, it also considered about the problem of insolvent.Lehman Brother had more than $600 billion bank loans, $155 billion debt securities, and only $639 billion net assets . Besides, the U. S. government took non-interventionism accelerated collapse of Lehman Brothers. As the U. S. government did not make any financial support or warranty to save Lehman Brothers, and leave the market accept the news of the Lehman bankruptcy. The government refused to guarantee Lehman Brothers directly caused many investors to exited, while the Barclays preferred to acquire part of LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s investment business in the United States, this still not strong enough to sa ve Lehman Brothers.Furthermore, the financial markets turmoil around the world should be affect Lehman Brothers, and it also one of a reason affect many companies to left Lehman stocks and bonds whether the U. S. financial institutions or foreign enterprises. Since the market got the news of Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, the Dow Jones Index has dropped nearly 800 points . In short, Lehman Brothers bankruptcy caused the devaluation of investment, cash flow problems and additional losses. Also Lehman financial crisis had a great influence on investorsÃ¢â¬â¢ directions.Many investors worried about Lehman crisis would be exacerbated the financial crisis and the market prospect is gloomy. Therefore, the Wall Street investment bank Lehman Brothers was collapse in the financial tsunami of 2008. Then on March, 2012, it completed the bankruptcy reorganization and will be to repay debts to creditors. After that, the fourth largest investment bank of the United States has become a historica l. The bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers might impact the entire financial market, the investors worried about the outlook of the U. S. economic and the international oil rices continued to decline. And the investors also concerned that the demand of crude oil and other commodities is likely to fall under the shadow of global recession. At the same time, the risk aversion awareness prompted investors to sell commodities and high risk assets. The U. S. stocks sharply down and European stock markets also had a significant decline. The event of Lehman Brothers gave to the world economic recovery to cast more dark shadows in 2008. References  Lehman Brothers Collection. Harvard Business School. Baker Library. Retrieved from http://www. ibrary. hbs. edu/hc/lehman/history. html  Sean Hinton. Lehman Brothers (LEHMQ). Wikinvest. Retrieved from http://www. wikinvest. com/stock/Lehman_Brothers_%28LEHMQ%29  Landon Thomas Jr. (July 23, 2003). Market Place; Lehman to Buy Neuberger Berman Fo r $2. 6 Billion. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes. com/2003/07/23/business/market-place-lehman-to-buy-neuberger-berman-for-2. 6-billion. html  Lehman Bros files for bankruptcy. (September 16, 2008). Retrieved from http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/business/7615931. stm  Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc.Spector Roseman Kodroff & Willis. Retrieved from http://www. srkw-law. com/areas-of-practice/international/lehman-brothers. html  Luigi Zingales. (October 2008). Causes and Effects of the Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy. Retrieved from http://www. scribd. com/doc/11096014/Causes-and-Effects-of-the-Lehman-Brothers-Bankruptcy  Lehman Brother. Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Lehman_Brothers  Kim Sarro & Justin Pak. (November 29, 2008). The Causes for the Collapse of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. Retrieved from http://www. articlesbase. om/business-articles/the-causes-for-the-collapse-of-lehman-brothers-holdings-inc-664202. html  Lehman Brothers: The last empire of wealth. (December 6, 2011). Retrieved from http://www. stockmarkettoday. cc/lehman-brothers-the-last-empire-of-wealth. html  What Happens To Options During Bankruptcy. Option Trading Pedia. Retrieved from http://www. optiontradingpedia. com/what_happens_to_options_during_bankruptcy. htm  Hedge funds post biggest losses since Lehman. (June 2010). Retrieved from http://connection. ebscohost. com/c/articles/52970726/hedge-funds-post-biggest-losses-since-lehman
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Baking powder and baking soda lose their effectiveness over time, which can ruin your baking. Heres how to test baking powder and baking soda to make sure they are still good. Key Takeaways: Baking Powder and Baking Soda Freshness Baking powder and baking soda have a shelf life. Over time, these kitchen chemical lose their ability to make baked goods rise.You can test baking powder by mixing a small amount with a bit of hot water. Bubbles should be produced.You can test baking soda by mixing it with a few drops of lemon juice or vinegar. It should produce bubbles.Store baking powder and baking soda in a sealed container. Exposure to humidity eventually deactivates them. How to Test Baking Powder Baking powder is activated by a combination of heat and moisture. Test baking powder by mixing 1 teaspoon of baking powder with 1/3 cup hot water. If the baking powder is fresh, the mixture should produce lots of bubbles. Be sure to use warm or hot water; cold water will not work for this test. How to Test Baking Soda Baking soda is meant to produce bubbles when mixed with an acidic ingredient. Check baking soda by dripping a few drops of vinegar or lemon juice onto a small amount (1/4 teaspoon) of baking soda. The baking soda should bubble vigorously. If you dont see a lot of bubbles, its time to replace your baking soda. Baking Powder Baking Soda Shelf Life Depending on the humidity and how well the container is sealed, you can expect an opened box of baking powder or baking soda to retain its activity for a year to 18 months. Both products last longest if they are stored in cool, dry locations. High humidity can lessen the effectiveness of these leavening agents much more quickly. Its a good idea to test baking powder and soda before using them, just to be sure they are still good. The test is quick and simple and can save your recipe!